Migraines, far more than ‘just a headache’ can be immensely debilitating and cause a range of symptoms, beyond headache pain.
But there’s still a lot of misunderstanding around migraines, which affect one in seven people.
The Migraine Trust say migraine is more common than diabetes, epilepsy and asthma combined.
It’s Migraine Awareness Week between September 6-12, and the charity is highlighting migraine triggers, which can include stress, poor sleep, alcohol, hunger, hormonal changes and the environment.
It’s also a good opportunity to raise awareness of migraine symptoms, which include a painful headache, vision problems, sensitivity to light, sound and smells, plus nausea and vomiting.
Here, Dr Ben Turner, a consultant neurologist at London Bridge Hospital (part of HCA Healthcare UK) explains more about the condition.
What causes migraines?
“In neuroscience terms, migraine is a ‘disorder of central sensory processing’, or in non-medical terms, ‘incorrect signals within the brain’.
In essence, the cause of migraine is the complexity of the brain – 86 billion neurons are bound to misfire at times,” says Turner.
“The brain is a highly sophisticated computer and, like computers, it may inexplicably freeze and need reboots. On an individual level, the main risk factors for migraine are genetic – i.e. a family history – and lifestyle, lack of meals or sleep.”
Are some people more likely to suffer migraines?
“Migraines are more common in females, particularly between the onset of menstruation and menopause. People with relatives, such as parents or siblings with migraine, will be more prone to suffer too.”
What are the treatments and how successful are they?
“There are three pillars of treatment: lifestyle, treatment of individual attacks (acute management), and preventative treatments (prophylaxis),” explains Turner, who stresses that all of these can play an important role in managing migraine.
“Lifestyle is about routine, regular diet – breakfast, lunch and evening meals – and avoiding low blood sugar, which is a biological stress and trigger.
“Whether individual foods act as trigger is less clear, but chocolate, caffeine and dairy are considered potential triggers, in addition to alcoholic drinks – although triggers tend to be unreliable and individual. It’s established that shift workers are more prone to migraine, so regular sleep patterns reduce the risk. Regular exercise is also protective.
“Acute management is about taking medication early, such as soluble aspirin in a carbonated drink with caffeine. Alternatives to aspirin are the triptan family of drugs, which are now available over-the-counter. Both these approaches should ease two-thirds of migraines – they don’t stop all attacks, but doses can be repeated if necessary. If nausea is a factor then using medication to treat this is important.
“Prophylactic treatment used to require taking a medication such as a beta blocker, antidepressant or anti-epileptic medication regularly for weeks or months. More recently, a new group of drugs targeting the calcitonin gene related peptide pathway have shown good outcomes. On average, these preventative treatments reduce migraine attacks by 50%.”
How psychologically damaging are migraines?
“Regular migraine sufferers are more prone to low mood and anxiety, not just because of the regular threat of incapacitating attacks, but it appears the changes in the brain before and after migraine also make individuals low in mood,” says Turner.
‘Give it up’ for migraine
The Migraine Trust is asking the friends and family of people with migraine to take part in its #GiveUpForMigraine campaign, by thinking of something they love doing that they’re prepared to give up for a month, and donate the money they save from not doing it to The Migraine Trust.
The idea is that sacrificing what they love will give people an insight into a key part of what living with migraine is like, as the condition is often triggered by things people enjoy doing, like drinking alcohol or coffee, and they have to give them up to try to prevent their migraines.
“A migraine attack is often triggered by something, and understanding what triggers your attacks can help you manage it,” explains Migraine Trust spokesperson, Una Farrell. “Triggers vary for different people – alcohol might be a trigger for one person, while hormonal changes might trigger monthly attacks for one woman but not another.”
Farrell says identifying a trigger isn’t always easy, and they can sometimes be wrongly identified. “For example, at the beginning of an attack, before the pain’s begun, you may experience a craving for sweet things,” she says. “If you eat some chocolate to satisfy this craving, and then get a headache, you may identify chocolate as one of your triggers. In fact, you were starting to get a migraine before you ate the chocolate.”
A good way to identify triggers, she says, is to keep a detailed diary of your activity, food and drink, changes to your mood and body, and external factors such as the weather and room temperature, to help you spot patterns and thus identify your real migraine triggers.