In 2019 if more than two dozen The Democrats were vying for the party’s nomination for president, it appeared agree to one thing: You were against former President Donald Trump draconian immigration policy. Beyond that, however, it got messy. A camp of more progressive Democrats led by former San Antonio mayor and housing secretary Julián Castro campaigned for it Repeal a law that makes unauthorized border crossing a crime. Other candidates expressed discomfort about the idea, Raise concerns about What would that mean for traffickers or drug smugglers crossing the border?
However, the fact that Democratic presidential candidates were discussing decriminalization of border crossings was still a major breach. Over the years, Democrats have moved to the left on immigration, and Democratic voters are now holding on more progressive views on immigration as both their republican equivalents and one-time Democratic Party leaders former President Barack Obama. But as the 2019 President’s main debate shows, there is still a lot of debate in the party about how far to go. Democratic strategists and immigration experts I’ve spoken to say it’s hard to understand why immigration remains such a problem for Democrats without first considering it how the party’s relationship with immigration has changed and what that has meant for rival factions within the party. Understanding these trends also explains why Democrats Immigration campaign not reallyand why this makes President Biden’s decision How can the current escalation of fears on the US-Mexico border be addressed? An even more complicated situation for a party that does not want to risk its congressional majority next year.
Today it is easy to divide the Democrats into two camps: moderate and progressive. But it wasn’t always that easy. In the 1980s and 90s when the number of undocumented immigrants in the US began to tickThere were two main lines of thought in the Democratic Party regarding immigration: A. Civil rights wing aimed to promote equal opportunities in housing, education and suffrage, and as such was immigrant and a duel Working wing They were cautious – or even hostile – towards immigrants who they feared would replace union workers or undermine working conditions.
But immigration wasn’t the polarizing topic it is today, so it wasn’t a big talking point among Democrats. (The Party 1984 platform There wasn’t even a section on immigration, however.) The Republicans, however, talked more about immigration and pushed for it stricter immigration policiesincluding building a wall along the US-Mexico border. This, along with trying to fight crime, created a dynamic that the GOP found itself in perceived as the party that was “tough on crime” while Democrats were portrayed as “Soft” on crime.
However, that changed for the Democrats with the election of President Bill Clinton, who ran on a platform for law enforcement as well criticized his opponent George H.W. bush, for reducing local law enforcement assistance during his tenure. (Clinton duplicated this approach and later held a re-election platform that is, “We cannot tolerate illegal immigration and we have to stop it.”) And it was the law under Clinton that, in essence, did created the immigration enforcement system as we know it today, was passed. The 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Responsibility Act approved greater resources for enforcing borders, added penalties for undocumented immigrants who had committed a crime in the U.S., and made asylum seekers a duty to act Support your applications to submit the necessary documents.
In many ways, the Democrats’ decision to tighten immigration was part of a larger effort to push for tighter law enforcement policies. Clinton too during the same period Signing of the Welfare Reform Act of 1996what he would say End of “welfare as we know it” and made Help far more temporary and depending on the occupation. There was also the now notorious one 1994 Crime Act, which accelerated mass incarceration in the United States.
Cristobal Ramón, an independent immigration policy advisor, told me that the Democrats were gradually leaving those positions, but emphasized how closely the laws were from then on. “The prevailing political view,” Ramón said, “was that deterrence was the only way to stop violations of the law, including the country’s immigration laws.” But these laws have left the Democrats with an uncomfortable legacy disproportionately affected and criminalized People with color.
However, in the early 2000s, some things changed in the Democratic Party. For starters, the proportion of the party’s voters Express concern over immigrants and refugees entering the US declined after the number of migrants entering the US. significantly decreased. Plus, “tough on crime” guidelines were expensive and your The impact was minimal.
In the course of time the older divisions in the party fell away. While there was still some concerns among Democrats, on the impact of immigration on the American worker, the pro-union wing of the party became more for immigrants after increasing pressure from other unions, especially the service workers unions, Many of them are of Hispanic descent. The AFL-CIO also turned back its anti-immigrant positions, which in 2000 called for undocumented immigrants to be granted citizenship. Another important development in the second half of this decade was one Bill to reform omnibus immigration Republicans pushed through Congress in 2006, which failed to become law, but emphasized border security and imposed penalties for illegal immigration.
It was also around this time that Republican and Democratic voters split dramatically over immigration. according to the survey from the Pew Research Center. In the mid-2000s the two parties were pretty close in their views. When asked in 2003 whether immigrants make the country stronger, 47 percent of Democrats and people who are Democratic and 46 percent of Republicans and people who oppose Republicans agreed. Now nearly 90 percent of Democrats feel that way, compared to just 40 percent of Republicans.
Despite this seismic movement of immigration to the left, there are still important divisions within the Democratic Party, many of which have roots in the party’s past. The two big camps that elected officials fall into today are those Establishment, pro-immigrant wing, These tend to include moderate Democrats, including those who come from purple districts and or live along the border between the United States and Mexico and the progressive wing, This includes members who the Democratic Party generally considers too centrist and too cautious.
However, there is one thing where both wings appear to be united: the advancement of the Delayed Action Program on the Arrivals of Obama-Era ChildrenThis allows undocumented immigrants who were brought into the country as children to apply for a renewable work permit and avoid deportation. Lately something has changed in this program: All House Democrats – plus nine Republicans – voted in favor of the Dream and Promise Act, which would provide a route to citizenship for DACA recipients. (It’s less clear how the bill will fare in the Senate.)
But that’s about all the two wings have in common. According to Veronica Vargas Stidvent, executive director of the University of Texas at the Austin Center for Women in Law and former assistant secretary of the U.S. Department, the establishment, the party’s immigrant wing, tends to look at immigration from a more economic perspective than labor . This wing is more concerned about the impact of immigrants on American workers and supports the limited deportation of certain immigrants (as in the US with no records of who have committed a crime).
Many elected officials who fall into this group make tough political calculations. For some (think members like Sen. Dianne Feinstein, a California liberal who was Raids against immigration) the fact that they fall into this wing of the party is more a reflection of their moderate politics. But for other members – who come from districts that are not so democratic and from states where migrant flows are more pronounced and Latino voters have shown some signs of Moving towards the GOP – The fact that they fall into this wing is more a reflection of their political reality.
Those closest to the US-Mexico border are most directly affected by the disruption of unauthorized immigration. As a result, the immigration policy is complicated. For example, many Texas Latinos have assertive views on immigrationeven if they empathize with the migrants. It is unlikely that Democrats in this camp would support a major overhaul of the immigration system for fear of being alienated from their constituencies. If immigration reform goes too far, it may also mean that they support “open borders,” a phrase that has become a household name right topic of conversation.
Members of the progressive wing, meanwhile, want a more humanitarian immigration system that is less focused on enforcing borders. Many want abolish or dramatically restructure U.S. Immigration and Customs Services – a collective call that became popular among some Democrats amid some of Trump’s toughest immigration policies – and they want the federal government to stop the deportation of immigrants. They also want to increase the number of immigrants. ” Access to social safety net programs.
Stay Democrats disagreed about how best to get ahead. Biden’s approach so far has been to roll back what Trump didbut he will ultimately have to choose either side within his party or work towards a compromise. However, this will not be easy, especially when it comes to solving the current problem at the border. For starters, he would likely need Republican support to accomplish anything immigration related (a budget vote may not be an option given parliamentary rules). unless immigration measures are in place another bill) and the GOP probably won’t work with Democrats.
Regardless of what Biden does, he risks pissing off any of the aforementioned wings of his party. If he moves too far to the left, he risks losing moderate voters. However, if he doesn’t move left enough, he risks breaking his promise from a at the same time “Fair and humane” immigration overhaul.
Immigration also poses a major electoral challenge for Biden. While, according to the President, in mid-March he received good grades for his entire work as President, dealing with the economy and the COVID-19 pandemic CBS / YouGov pollOnly 52 percent of adults in the US are in favor of the way he deals with immigration. This is one of the lowest problems YouGov surveyed.
“Any time you have competing factions, it can do one of two things: push people into the middle to find compromises or lead to a stalemate,” said Stidvent. And ultimately, as Stidvent warned, a democratic party that disagrees on how best to deal with immigration is not helping any party. But it wouldn’t be Completely surprising when some of the more moderate Democrats suggested a compromise with the Republicans. (House Democrats passed two bills earlier this year designed to provide legal protection to millions of undocumented immigrants, including DACA recipients Senate Democrats, handicapped by the filibustermay have to strike a balance with Republican demands for more border protection when they want their bills To get to Biden’s desk.) Given the current composition of Congress and the drastically conflicting views on immigration reform within and between the parties, any kind of comprehensive immigration reform will be difficult.