Jacob Rees-Mogg is self-isolating as one of his children awaits a Covid-19 test result.
The Commons Leader was absent from the weekly business questions session, in which he updates MPs about the debates scheduled for the following week.
Deputy chief whip Stuart Andrew stood in for Mr Rees-Mogg on Thursday.
Father-of-six Mr Rees-Mogg wrote on Twitter: “Many thanks to @StuartAndrew for standing in for me at business questions.
“One of my children was tested for Covid-19 last weekend after displaying symptoms.
“In accordance with Government guidance, the household has been in self-isolation while we await the test result.”
Mr Rees-Mogg last week tweeted a photo of five of his children dressed in their uniforms as they returned to school.
He wrote at the time: “The holidays are over and my five older children certainly need and want to be at school.”
For Labour, shadow Commons leader Valerie Vaz told MPs: “We all wish the Leader of the House and the whole Rees-Mogg family well, and we know it had to be something very, very serious for him not to be here.”
A total of 9,864 new people tested positive for Covid-19 in England in the week to September 2, according to the latest Test and Trace figures.
This is an increase of 43% in positive cases on the previous week, and is the highest weekly number since Test and Trace was launched at the end of May.
Since the launch of Test and Trace, 293,452 close contacts of people who have tested positive for Covid-19 have now been reached through the tracing system and asked to self-isolate.
This is 78.8% out of a total of 372,493 people identified as close contacts.
The remaining 79,041 people (21.2%) were identified as close contacts, but were not reached.