Some people don't experience any Covid vaccine side-effects at all

Most vaccines have side effects and COVID vaccines are no different. The public iscalmed downIf you have a sore arm that the needle went into, or if you feel tired, have a headache, fever, or feel sick, these are just signs that the immune system is working as it should. Some people have wondered: if the immune system is doing what it’s supposed to do, does a lack of side effects mean my immune system is not prepared to protect me?

Rest assured, it doesn’t mean anything like that. The clinical vaccine studies of Pfizer show that 50% of the participants did not experience any significant side effects during the study, but 90% of the participants developed immunity to the virus. And the advice on Moderna vaccine says one in ten people has common side effects, but the vaccine protects 95% of those who take it.

This can be explained by taking into account how the immune system develops protective immunity to viruses when triggered by a vaccine. Most COVID vaccines, including some approved ones, use a viral protein on the outer shell of the coronavirus known as spike protein to mimic a natural viral infection and trigger an immune response.

The branch of the immune response known as innate immunity responds almost instantly to the viral spike protein. It starts an attack against it by causing inflammation, the main signs of which are fever and pain. So it is the innate immune response that causes the most common side effects people have a day or two after the sting.

Scientists have found that people over 65 have fewer side effects from the vaccine. This is due to the gradual age-related decline in immune activity. Although this may be related lower antibody levels You still have immunity to the virus.

Sex can play a role too. In a US study 79% of reports of side effects were from women. This sexual bias could have something to do with testosterone. Testosterone tends to Attenuate inflammation and the associated side effects. Men have more testosterone than women, which may result in fewer reports of side effects in men.

People who have chronic inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and multiple sclerosis who are taking immunosuppressive drugs to control their symptoms may experience fewer side effects because of a muted inflammatory response. Although the immune response is muffled, that doesn’t mean it isn’t there. In a 2020 study When comparing the antibody levels in people who received immunosuppressants with those who did not, it was found that those who received immunosuppressants produced lower levels of antibodies, but none of them had no antiviral antibodies.

Vaccine side effects should not be used as a measure of vaccine effectiveness. Despite the different immune responses to vaccines, when vaccinated, most people achieve immunity to the coronavirus, regardless of the presence, absence and severity of the side effects.

Veenu Manoharan, Lecturer in immunology, Cardiff Metropolitan University

This article is republished by The conversation under a Creative Commons license. read this original article.

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