The UK’s supply of coronavirus vaccines could continue to grow should the new Novavax batch get approved by the Medicines Agency.
The vaccine, which has shown promising results in studies, is made in Stockton-on-Tees but has yet to be approved by the drug and health product regulator.
In the meantime, most of the Oxford / AstraZeneca vaccine is said to be made in the UK, although the first doses are from Germany.
The Pfizer / BioNTech vaccine is made in Europe.
What has the UK secured access to?
– What types of vaccines have been ordered?
– Adenoviral vaccines: These are based on weakened versions of adenoviruses, a group of viruses that typically infect membranes of the eyes, respiratory tract, urinary tract, intestines, and nervous system, including the common cold.
– mRNA vaccines: traditional vaccines consist of small or inactivated doses of the entire disease-causing organism or the proteins it produces, which are introduced into the body to get the immune system to respond. But mRNA vaccines make the body make some of the viral proteins on its own.
– Inactivated whole virus vaccines: Inactivated vaccines contain killed whole bacteria or viruses, or small parts of bacteria or viruses such as proteins or sugars that cannot cause disease.
– Protein adjuvant vaccines: some vaccines contain an adjuvant to increase the immune response. They have been shown to produce stronger and longer lasting immunity to infection than the vaccine alone.
The use of an adjuvant can reduce the amount of vaccine protein required per dose, allowing more vaccine doses to be made.
Britain has ordered vaccines from:
– BioNTech and Pfizer
Doses: 40 million – enough for 20 million people
The vaccine will be launched across the UK after it was approved for use on December 2nd last year.
– Oxford and AstraZeneca
Doses: 100 million – enough for 50 million people
The jab will be given across the UK after the drug and health products regulator (MHRA) gave the go-ahead on December 30th.
Doses: 17 million – enough for 8.5 million people
The US biotech company’s batch has been approved for use in the UK, but the dosage won’t be available until the spring.
Type: protein adjuvant.
Doses: Under the fundamental agreement, the UK has received 60 million doses of the Novavax vaccine
UK provides Novavax infrastructure to conduct a Phase 3 clinical trial in the UK and plans to manufacture its vaccine in the UK with Fujifilm Diosynth Biotechnologies.
The results of these studies show that the vaccine offers 89% protection against Covid-19 but still requires approval from the MHRA, which can take several weeks.
Cans: Around 30 million cans have been secured by Janssen, owned by Johnson & Johnson
The results of the ensemble’s ongoing Phase 3 clinical trial are expected to be available later this month.
Type: Inactivated Whole Virus
Doses: There is a fundamental agreement for 60 million doses. If the vaccine is found to be safe, effective and appropriate, the UK will have an option to receive an additional 40 million doses
Valneva’s facility in Livingston, West Lothian, will manufacture the vaccine. Clinical studies are ongoing.
– GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and Sanofi Pasteur
Type: protein adjuvant
Doses: 60 million
Clinical trials for the vaccine are ongoing. Interim results from the early stages of the study showed an immune response comparable to patients recovering from Covid-19 in adults aged 18 to 49, but a low immune response in older adults.